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Waltz dance | Waltz dance wiki | Waltz dance history

Waltz dance

There square measure many references to a slippy or soaring dance that may evolve into the waltz that originates in sixteenth-century Europe, together with the representations of the artist Hans Sebald Beham. The French thinker Michel Montaigne wrote of a dance he saw in 1580 in Augsburg, where the dancers management each other therefore closely that their faces touched.

Kunz Haas (of close to the same period) wrote, “Now they are humanistic discipline the impious Weller or Spinner. The vigorous peasant dancer, following associate self-generated knowledge of a load of fall, utilizes his surplus energy to press all his strength into the right beat of the bar, thus deepening his personal enjoyment in the humanistic discipline. The peasants of state, Tyrol, and Styria began performing arts with a dance known as Walzer, a dance for couples, around 1750. The Ländler, to boot referred to as the Schleifer, a country dance in 3/4 time, was trendy in a geographical region, Austria, and state, and unfold from the country to the suburbs of the city. whereas in the eighteenth century higher classes continued to bounce the minute, bored noblemen slipped away to the balls of their servants.

In the 1771 German novel Geschichte des Fräuleins von Sternheim by Sophie von La Roche, an idealistic character complains regarding the newly introduced waltz among aristocrats thus: “But once he places his arm around her, ironed her to his breast, cavorted along with her within the unashamed, indecent whirling-dance of the Germans and engaged in an exceedingly familiarity that skint all the bounds of excellent breeding—then my silent misery changed into burning rage.

Describing life in Vienna (dated at either 1776 or 1786[4]), Don Curzio wrote, “The individuals were performing arts-mad … the women of Vienna square measure notably celebrated for his or her grace and movements of waltzing of that they ne’er tire.” there’s a waltz within the second act finale of the 1786 opera Una Cosa Rara by Martin y Soler. Soler’s waltz was marked Andante con moto, or “at a walking pace with motion”, however the flow of the dance was sped-up in Vienna resulting in the Geschwindwalzer, and also the Galloppwalzer.

In the transition from country to town, the hopping of the Ländler, a dance known as Languages, became a slimy step, and soaring rotation replaced stamping rotation.
In the nineteenth century, the word primarily indicated that the dance was a turning one; one would “waltz” within the polka to point rotating instead of going uncomplicated while not turning.

The national capital custom is to anticipate slightly the second beat of every bar, creating it sounds as if the third is late and making a precise buoyancy. The younger Strauss (Johann Strauss II) would generally hack the one-two-three of the melody with a one-two pattern at intervals the accompaniment in conjunction with totally different rhythms, maintaining the 3/4 time whereas inflicting the dancers to bounce a ballroom dance waltz. The apparatus speed for a full bar varies between sixty and seventy, with the waltzes of the first Strauss (Johann Strauss I) generally contend faster than those of his sons.

Shocking many once it had been initially introduced,[8] the waltz became fashionable in Vienna around the time period, spreading to many totally different countries at intervals over the years to follow. keep with up to now singer archangel Kelly, it reached land in 1791.[9] throughout the war, force troopers of the King’s German Legion introduced the dance to the people of Bexhill, the region from 1804.

It became modern in GB throughout the Regency amount, having been created respectable by the endorsement of Dorothea Lieven, a woman of the Russian ambassador. diary keeper Thomas Raikes later recounted that “No event ever made thus nice a sensation in English society because of the introduction of the waltz in 1813. in the same year, a wry tribute to the dance by Lord George Gordon Byron was anonymously printed (written the previous autumn).

potent dance master and author of instruction manuals, Thomas Wilson printed an outline of the right methodology of Waltzing in 1816. Almack’s, the foremost exclusive club in London, allowable the waltz, tho’ the entry within the Oxford English wordbook shows that it had been thought-about “riotous and indecent” as late as 1825. within the Tenant of Wildfell Hall, by Anne Brontë, in an exceeding scene set in 1827, the native vicar Reverend Milward tolerates quadrilles and country dances, however, intervenes resolutely once a waltz is termed for, declaring “No, no, I do not enable that! come back, it is time to be going home.

The waltz, and particularly its closed position, became the instance for the creation of the many different dance palace dances. afterward, new styles of waltz have developed, together with many people and several other dance palace dances.


In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, various totally different waltz forms existed, together with versions performed in 3/4, 3/8 or 6/8 (sauteuse), and 5/4 time (5/4 waltz, [*fr1] and a half).
In the 1910s, a type known as the “Hesitation Waltz” was introduced by Vernon and Irene Castle.It incorporated “hesitations” and was danced to quick music. A hesitation is largely a halt on the standing foot throughout the complete waltz bar, with the moving foot suspended in the air or slowly dragged. Similar figures (Hesitation amendment, Drag Hesitation, and Cross Hesitation) square measure incorporated within the International commonplace Waltz curriculum.

The Country Western Waltz is generally progressive, moving counter-clockwise around the flooring. each the posture and frame square measure relaxed, with posture bordering on a slouch. The exaggerated hand and arm gestures of some dance palace designs don’t seem to be a part of this vogue. Couples could ofttimes dance within the promenade position, looking at native preferences. at intervals Country Western Waltz, there’s the Spanish Waltz and also a lot of fashionable (for the late 1930s- early 1950s) Pursuit Waltz. At just the once it had been a thought-about sick treatment for a person to form the lady walk backward in some locations.

In the province, the waltz was misbr by Mission clergymen until once in 1834 as a result of the “closed” dance position. thereafter a Spanish Waltz was danced. This Spanish Waltz was a combination of humanistic discipline around the house in the closed position and a “formation” dance of two couples facing each other and taking part in a sequence of steps. “Valse a Trois Temps” was the “earliest” waltz step, and conjointly the Rye Waltz was favored as some dance.
In up to date social dancing, the quick versions of the waltz square measure known as national capital Waltz as hostile to the Slow Waltz.

In ancient Irish music, the waltz was educated by travel performing arts masters to people who might afford their lessons throughout the nineteenth century. By the tip of that century, the dance unfolds to the center and lower categories of Irish society and ancient triple-tune tunes and songs were altered to suit the waltz rhythm. throughout the twentieth century, the waltz found a distinctively Irish enjoying vogue within the hands of Céilidh musicians at dances.

Waltz, by Camille Claudel (1893)

International commonplace Waltz has solely closed figures; that’s, the couple ne’er breaks the embrace.
The Yankee vogue Waltz, a part of the Yankee swish social dancing curriculum, in distinction to the International commonplace Waltz, involves breaking contact nearly entirely in some figures. for instance, the rhythmic Side-by-Side with Spin includes a free spin for each partner. Open rolls square measure ANother model of an open dance figure, within which the follower alternates between the lead’s left and right sides, with the lead’s left or right arm (alone) providing the lead. Waltzes were the staple of the many Yankee musicals and films, together with “Waltz in Swing Time” sung by the dancer.

The Scandinavian Waltz, performed as a neighborhood of Scandinavian folks dance, are often quick or slow, however, the dancers square measure invariably rotating.
The South American country via Waltz is termed and recognized in Peru as vals criollo.
The Mexican Waltz (Vals Mexicano) follows an equivalent basic prosody because the commonplace waltz, however, the melodies mirror a powerful Spanish influence. Mexico’s Juventino Rosas wrote “Sobre las Olas” or “Over the Waves”, ordinarily notable within the U.S. as a circus song contend throughout a swing show.

The Acadian Waltz is danced more and more around the floor, and is characterized by the delicate swaying of the hips and step terribly near standard walking. it’s danced entirely within the closed position.
The Cuban (or Tropical) Waltz follows the pattern of the quality waltz throughout the song.
The Venezuelan waltz provided a basis for distinctive regional music.

The Contra Waltz (Freeform Waltz), fencelike in most contra dance evenings, uses every open and closed position and incorporates moves from completely different dances like swing, trendy jive, and seasoning. essentially the dancers progress round the flooring with a waltz step, however with no constraints on what moves they will use.
The waltz shepherd’s pipe, a variety of waltz fashionable in France, started in the late nineteenth century.

The cross-step waltz (French waltz Boston) developed in France in the early twentieth century and is fashionable in social waltz teams nowadays.
In folks dance from the Elsass region, waltzes in odd meters like 5/4, 8/4 and 11/4 square measure found.
Estonian folks dance Labajalavalss (flat of the foot waltz) performed in 3/4 time.
Today each the quicker national capital Waltz, created forever fashionable by the Strauss family, and also the slower Yankee and International vogue waltzes square measure very fashionable dancers of all ages.

Sama’i (also called usual email) may be a vocal piece of Ottoman Turkish music composed in 6/8 meters. this kind and meter (usual in Turkish) are usually confused with the utterly totally different Saz Semaisi, AN instrumental type consisting of 3 to four sections, in 10/8 meter, or usual aksak email (broken email in Turkish). Semai is one in every of the foremost vital forms in Ottoman Turkish Sufi music.
The Tsamikos (Greek: Τσάμικος, Tsamikos) or Kleftikos (Greek: Κλέφτικος) is also a modern ancient people dance of Balkan country, done to the music of 3/4 meter.

(Shahinul Islam Uzzal)


Flamenco dance | Flamenco dance wiki | Flamenco dance history

Category : Dance

Flamenco dance

Flamenco (Spanish pronunciation: [flaˈmeŋko]), in its strictest sense, could also be a professionalized art-form supported the various folkloric music traditions of Southern European nation at intervals the autonomous communities of geographical area, Extremadura and an exceedingly wider sense, it refers to those musical traditions and additional trendy musical designs that have themselves been deeply influenced by and become blurred with the event of flamenco over the past 2 centuries. It includes cante (singing), toque (guitar playing), baile (dance), jaleo (vocalizations), Palmas (handclapping) and pitas (finger snapping).

The oldest record of flamenco dates to 1774 within the book Las Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso.The genre originated within the music and dance kinds of geographic region, of abundant older origin. Flamenco has been influenced by and becomes related to the itinerant individuals in Spain; but, in contrast to itinerant music in jap Europe, its origin and magnificence is unambiguously Andalusian.

In recent years,[when?] flamenco has become fashionable everywhere around the globe and is schooled in several non-Hispanic countries, particularly u. s. and Japan. In Japan, their square measure additional flamenco academies than their square measure in Espana. On November sixteen, 2010, UN agency declared flamenco one of all the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.


There square measure several suggestions for the origin of the word flamenco as a musical term (summarized below) however no solid proof for any of them. The word wasn’t recorded as a musical and dance term till the late eighteenth century.

One theory is that the Spanish word flamenco may are a spinoff of the Spanish word for flame, that means “fire” or “flame”. The word flamenco might have returned to be used for fiery behavior, that may have returned to be applied to the Gypsy players and performers.

Another theory, planned by geographic area scholar and nationalist Blas Infante in his 1933 book Orígenes American state lo Flamenco y Secreto del Cante Jondo urged that the word flamenco comes if truth be told from the Hispano-Arabic term peasant menu, meaning “expelled peasant”.This term brought up the numerous Andalusians of the Islamic religion, the Moriscos UN agency remained, and so as to avoid spiritual maltreatment, joined with the Roma newcomers.

The Palos of Flamenco

Palos (formerly referred to as cantes) square measure flamenco designs, classified by criteria like prosody, mode, chord progression, stanzaic type and geographic origin. There square measure over fifty completely different Palos, some square measure sung unaccompanied whereas alternatives have a stringed instrument or other accompaniment.

Some forms square measure danced whereas others aren’t. Some square measure reserved for men et al. for ladies whereas some could also be performed by either, tho’ these ancient distinctions square measure breaking down: the Farruca, as an example, once a male dance, is currently unremarkably performed by ladies too.

There square measure some ways to reason Palos however they historically are 3 classes: the foremost serious is thought as cante jondo (or can’t grande), whereas lighter, empty-headed forms square measure known as cante Leonard Marx. Forms that don’t match either class square measure classed as cante intermedio.

These square measure the simplest illustrious Palos:

Bulerías por soleá (soleá por bulerías)
Fandango American state Huelva
Fandango Malagueño

A typical flamenco recital with voice and instrument accompaniment includes a series of things (not specifically “songs”) in various Palos. each song of a bunch of verses (called copla, Tercio, or Letras), that area unit punctuated by instrument interludes referred to as falsetas.The player conjointly provides a brief introduction that sets the musical notation, compás, and tempo of the cante. In some palos, these falsetas are vie with bound structures too; as an example, the standard sevillanas is vie in associate degree AAB pattern, wherever A and B square measure constant falseta with solely a small distinction within the ending.


Flamenco uses the Flamenco mode (which may also be delineated because of the trendy Phrygian mode (modo frigio), or a harmonic version of that scale with a serious third degree), additionally to the most important and minor scales unremarkably utilized in trendy Western music. The Phrygian mode happens in Palos like soleá, most bulerías, siguiriyas, tangos, and tientos.

Descending E Phrygian scale in flamenco music, with common alterations in parentheses
A typical chord sequence, typically referred to as the “Andalusian cadence” may even be viewed as in AN passing modified Phrygian: in E the sequence is Am–G–F–E.[18] keep with Manolo Sanlúcar E is here the tonic, F has the harmonic perform of dominant whereas Am and G assume the functions of note and tone severally.

Guitarists tend to use solely 2 basic inversions or “chord shapes” for the tonic chord (music), the open first inversion E and therefore the open third inversion A, tho’ they typically transpose these by employing a head. trendy guitarists like Ramón Montoya, have introduced various positions: Montoya himself began to use various chords for the tonic among the stylish Dorian sections of the many Palos; F♯ for tarantulas, B for granaínas and A♭ for the minera. Montoya conjointly created a brand new Palo as a solo for a stringed instrument, the rondeña in C♯ with scordatura. Later guitarists have additional extended the repertoire of tonalities, chord positions, and scordatura.

There are Palos in major mode; most cantiñas and alegrías, guajira, some bulerías and tonás, and therefore the cables (a major style of Sigiriya). The secret’s restricted to the Farruca, the milongas (among cantes province international organization agency y vuelta), and some types of tangos, bulerías, etc. ordinarily ancient Palos in major and key area unit restricted harmonically to two-chord (tonic-dominant) or three-chord (tonic–subdominant–dominant) progressions. (Rossy 1998:92) however fashionable guitarists have introduced chord substitution, transition chords, and even modulation.

Fandangos and spinoff Palos like malagueñas, tarantulas and cartageneras square measure bimodal: stringed instrument introductions square measure in Phrygian mode whereas the singing develops in a major key, modulating to Phrygian at the tip of the text. (Rossy 1998:92)


Dionisio Preciado, quoted by Sabas American state Houses established the subsequent characteristics for the melodies of flamenco singing:

1. Microtonality: the presence of intervals smaller than the half step.

2. Portamento: oft, the modification from one note to a different is finished in an exceedingly sleek transition, instead of victimization separate intervals.
3. Short tessitura or range: Most ancient flamenco songs square measure restricted to a spread of a sixth (four tones and a half). The impression of vocal effort is that the results of victimization completely different timbres and selection is accomplished by the employment of microtones.

4. Use of enharmonic scale. whereas in temperament scales, enharmonics square measure notes with identical pitch however completely different spellings (e.g. A♭ and G♯); in flamenco, as in unequal temperament scales, there’s a microtonal intervallic distinction between enharmonic notes.

5. Insistence on a note and its contiguous chromatic notes (also frequent within the guitar), manufacturing a way of urgency.
6. Baroque ornamentation, with associate degree communicative, instead of simply aesthetic perform.
7. Apparent lack of normal rhythm, particularly within the siguiriyas: the melodic rhythm of the sung line is completely different from the metric rhythm of the accompaniment.
8. Most designs categorical unhappy and bitter feelings.
9. Melodic improvisation: flamenco singing isn’t, properly speaking, improvised, however, supported a comparatively tiny range of ancient songs, singers add variations on the spur of the instant.
Musicologist Hipólito Rossy adds the subsequent characteristics (Rossy 1997: 97):

* Flamenco melodies square measure characterized by a descending tendency, as critical, as an example, a typical opera aria, they typically go from the upper pitches to the lower ones, and from forte to piano, as was usual in Ancient Greek scales.

* In several designs, like soleá or siguiriya, the melody tends to proceed in contiguous degrees of the size. Skips of a 3rd or a fourth square measure rarer. However, in fandangos and fandango-derived designs, fourths and sixths will typically be found, particularly at the start of every line of verse. in keeping with Rossy, this can be proof of the newer creation of this kind of songs, influenced by Castilian jota.


Compás is that the Spanish word for a meter or musical notation (in musical style theory). It conjointly refers to the tripping cycle, or layout, of a Palo.

The compás is prime to flamenco. Compás is most frequently translated as rhythm however it demands way more precise interpretation than the other Western kind of music. If there’s no player on the market, the compás is rendered through applause (palmas) or by striking a table with the knuckles. The player uses techniques like strumming (rasgueado) or sound the resonator (golpe). Changes of chords emphasize the foremost vital downbeats.

Flamenco uses 3 basic counts or measures: Binary, Ternary and a type of a twelve-beat cycle that’s distinctive to flamenco. There are free-form designs as well as, among others, the tonás, saetas, malagueñas, tarantos, and a few varieties of fandangos.

* Rhythms in 2/2 or 4 / 4 These meters square measure utilized in forms like tangos, tientos, gypsy rumba, zambra, and tanguillos.
* Rhythms in 3/ 4. These square measure typical of fandangos and sevillanas, suggesting their origin as non-Roma designs, since the 3/4 and 4/4 measures aren’t common in ethnic Roma music.
* 12-beat rhythms sometimes rendered in amalgams of 6/8 + 3/4 and generally 12/8

8. The 12-beat cycle is that the commonest in flamenco, differentiated by the accentuation of the beats in numerous Palos. The accents don’t correspond to the classic conception of the musical rhythm. The alternating of teams of two and three beats is additionally common in Spanish people dances of the sixteenth Century like the zarabanda, jácara, and canarios.
There square measure 3 varieties of 12-beat rhythms, that vary in their layouts, or use of accentuations: soleá, seguiriya, and bulería.

1. peteneras and guajiras: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 each palos begin with the sturdy accent on 12. therefore the meter is 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ..
2. The seguiriya, liviana, serrana, toná liviana, cabales: 121 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
3. soleá, inside the cantiñas cluster of palos which has the alegrías, cantiñas, mirabras, romera, caracoles and soleá por bulería (also “bulería por soleá”): 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 For sensible reasons, once transferring flamenco stringed instrument music to musical composition, this rhythm is written as a daily 3/4.

The Bulerías is that the emblematic Palo of flamenco: these days its 12-beat cycle is most frequently vie with accents on the third, 6th, 8th, tenth and twelfth beats. The incidental palmas square measure vies in teams of half dozen beats, giving rise to a mess of counter-rhythms and music voices inside the twelve beat compás.

(Shahinul Islam Uzzal)


Jazz dance | Jazz dance history | Jazz dance wiki

Jazz dance

Jazz dance originated from the dance of African Americans that were delivered to America as slaves. Originally, the term jazz dance encompassed any dance done to jazz music, furthermore as every regulator dance and jitterbug.
Over time, a clearly outlined jazz genre emerged, dynamic from a street dance to a theatrical dance performed on stage by professionals. Some students and dancers, particularly Swing and lindy dancers, still regard the term jazz dance. it’s a genre that has created specific designs from renowned creators like Bob moat, Jack Cole, and Katherine Dunham. Jazz dance will see these specific designs or suggest to theatrical or character dance.

Some folks assume Jazz dance created new jazz, but really, stage dancing came additional as a response against Ballet. 2 main branches of recent dance were pioneered by dancer and professional dancer.


The term was first accustomed to describe dances done to the new-fangled jazz music of the primary twentieth century, but its origin lies among the dances brought from the continent by slaves shipped to America. At that point, it brought up any dance done to jazz music, including each faucet dance and jitterbug. A shaping feature was it’s “free conversation-like form of improvisation.” Carter, Curtis. “Improvisation in Dance.” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism fifty-eight, no. 2, 181-90. Accessed April twenty-four, 2015.

From the terribly starting of the Twenties, ballet was connected to each, jazz music and recreation, once the term ‘jazz ballet’ was spreading around the world. That was much the start of latest “non-jazz” jazz dance. That was followed by trendy dance-based makes an attempt to outline “modern jazz dance” while not a true affiliation to authentic jazz dance forms. These make an attempt was named jointly “modern jazz dance” by the tip of the Fifties. “Modern jazz dance” was outlined by the tip of the Nineteen Sixties.

During this point, creators from different genres experimented with the design.,including dancer, Agnes First State Mille, Jack Cole, Hanya Holm, Helen Tamiris, Michael Kidd, Robbins|choreographer}, and Bob moat. All of these choreographers influenced jazz by requiring very trained dancers and introducing steps from ballet and stage dancing. In the Fifties, jazz dance was deeply influenced by Caribbean and occupier influences, introduced by Katherine Dunham.


Students acting jazz dance at urban center Institute of Technology and better Education, Mexican capital as a part of Culture Week activities
(This section refers to components of recent Jazz Dance. the weather of different jazz designs will be found intimately on their own entries (Tap Dance, Jitterbug, Swing (dance), Lindy Hop)

Isolations square measure a top quality of movement that was introduced to jazz dance by Katherine Dunham. Isolations square measure the movements in one a part of the body specifically, whereas the opposite components stay still.

A low center of gravity, high energy, isolations, and magnificence square measure all characteristics accustomed to determine jazz dance.[8] different components of jazz dance square measure less common and square measure the stylizations of their individual choreographers. One such example square measure the inverted limbs and hunched-over posture of Bob moat.

Jazz dance is currently competed and performed through North America and lots of different countries across the planet. There square measure many alternative rhetorical preferences seen in jazz dances, like a slow or quick pace, approach, and even music. Jazz recreation will alright be performed to any form of music.

Notable administrators, dancers, and choreographers
Michael aeronaut, director, writer, choreographer, and dancer UN agency was a Tony award winner. A line and Dream women square measure samples of a number of his work.

Busby Berkley, moving-picture show creator within the Nineteen Thirties and Forties renowned for the geometric pattern and changeable arrangements
Jack Cole, thought of the daddy of jazz dance technique. He was a key inspiration to Matt Mattox, Bob Fosse, Jerome Robbins, Gwen Verdon, and lots of different choreographers. he’s attributable to popularizing the theatrical variety of jazz dance along with his nice variety of dance works on tv and street.
Katherine Dunham, associate degree social scientist, choreographer, and pioneer in Black theatrical dance. She introduced isolations to jazz dance.

Eugene Joseph Louis Barrow Facciuto (a.k.a. “Luigi”), associate degree accomplished dancer UN agency, when suffering an incapacitating automobile accident within the Fifties, created a brand new form of jazz dance supported the readying exercises he unreal to bypass his physical handicaps. The exercise routine he created for his own rehabilitation became the world’s 1st complete technique for learning jazz dance.[citation needed]

Bob Fosse, a noted jazz creator UN agency created a brand new variety of jazz dance that was impressed by Fred Astaire and also the burlesque and variety show designs.
Patsy Swayze, creator and dance educator, combining Jazz and Ballet. Swayze based the Houston Jazz troupe and served because of the ballet’s director.

Gus Giordano, associate degree potent jazz dancer and creator primarily based in Chicago, illustrious for his clean, precise movement qualities.
Michael Jackson called “The King of Pop”
Leon James, authentic Jazz dancers from the Nineteen Thirties original member of “Whitey’s lindy hop Hoppers
Gene Kelly, award-winning dance film icon. illustrious for continued his career for over sixty years. Work will be found in Singin’ in the Rain and On the city.
Frankie Manning, lindy, and authentic Jazz dancer and creator

Norma Miller, illustrious worldwide because of the “Queen of Swing” lindy and authentic Jazz dancer and creator
Al Minns, authentic Jazz dancers from the Nineteen Thirties original member of “Whitey’s lindy hop Hoppers
Jerome Robbins, creator of a variety of hit musicals, as well as Peter Pan, The King and that I, Fiddler on the Roof, Gypsy, Funny Girl, and side Story.

Gwen Verdon, illustrious for her roles in Damn Yankees, Chicago, and Sweet Charity.
David Winters illustrious for his role as A-Rab inside Story associate degreed as a victory creator for movies and television programs.
Molly Molloy potent for instructing Great Britain artists like Arlene Philips and lots of members of Hot Gossip Jazz dance technique and choreography.

(Shahinul Islam Uzzal)


Tap dance | Tap dance history | Tap dance wiki

Tap dance

Tap dance could be a sort of dance characterized by victimization the sounds of faucet shoes placing the ground as a sort of percussion. 2 major variations on faucet dance exist: rhythm (jazz) faucet and Great White Way faucet. Great White Way faucet focuses on dance; it’s wide performed in musical. Rhythm faucet focuses on musicalness, and practitioners think about themselves to be a region of the jazz tradition.

The sound is created by shoes that have a metal “tap” on the heel and toe. Their area unit takes issueent|completely different} brands of shoes that typically differ in the manner they sound.

“Soft-shoe” could be a rhythm sort of hoofing that doesn’t need special shoes, and the’ rhythm is generated by the sound of the feet, it additionally uses slippery of the feet (even typically victimization scattered sand on the stage to boost the sound of slippery feet) additional usually than trendy rhythm faucet. It preceded what is presently thought to be the trendy faucet, however, has since declined in quality.


Students acting a faucet dance in Ciudad de Mexico
Tap dance has its roots within the fusion of many ethnic music dances, together with African social group dances, English clog dance and Irish jigs; the relative contribution of various traditions could be a purpose of disagreement among historians and dance students. Tap dance is believed to possess begun within the mid-1800s throughout the increase of minstrel shows. far-famed as Master Juba, chemist Lane became one amongst the few black performers to affix associate degree otherwise white minstrel organization and is widely thought of to be one amongst the foremost far-famed forebears of faucet dance.

As the minstrel shows began to say no in quality, faucet dance touched to the progressively standard variety stage. thanks to the two-colored rule, that forbade black individuals from acting solo, the bulk of variety faucet acts were duets. This gave rise to the far-famed combine “Buck and Bubbles”, that consisted of John “Bubbles” Sublett hoofing and Ford “Buck” Washington on piano.

The couple formed the “class act”, a routine within which the performers wore impeccable tuxedos, that has since become a standard theme in faucet dance. The move is seen by some as a rebuttal to the older troupe plan of the faucet dancer as a “grinning-and-dancing clown.” John “Bubbles” Sublett is additionally acknowledged splendidly for popularizing rhythm faucet which includes additional music heel drops and lower-body movements.

Another notable figure to emerge throughout this era is Bill “Bojangles” Robinson, UN agency was a protégé of Alice Whitman of the Whitman Sisters around 1904 (then ‘Willie Robinson’). Well-versed in each Buck and Wing diversion and Irish step-dancing, Bill Robinson joined the variety circuit in 1902, in an exceedingly couple with George W. Cooper. The act quickly became far-famed, headlining events across the country, and itinerant England still.

In 1908, however, the 2 had associate degree words, and therefore the partnership was concluded. Gambling on his quality, Robinson determined to create a solo act, that was extraordinarily rare for an adult male at that point. Despite this, he had tremendous success and shortly became a world-famous celebrity. He went on to possess a number one role in several films, notably in movies major Shirley Temple Black.

Shortly after thenceforth, the saint Brothers came on the scene. Consisting of real-life brothers Fayard and Harold, this team wowed audiences with their athletic feats incorporated into their stylish kind of diversion. They ne’er looked but suave and were continually in the total management of their diversion, even in childhood numbers like Stormy Weather. A notable scene within the motion-picture show Stormy Weather options the combine diversion up a step then declivitous the steps in an exceedingly series of leapfrogs over one another into a full split from that they rise while not victimization their hands.

During the Nineteen Thirties faucet dance mixed with social dancing. “Flying swing-outs” and “flying circles” area unit social dancing moves with faucet footwork. in the mid- the too late Fifties, the fashion of amusement modified. Jazz music and faucet dance declined, whereas rock and roll and therefore the modern jazz dance emerged. what’s currently referred to as jazz dance evolved out of faucet dance, thus each dance has several moves in common? however, jazz evolved on an individual basis from faucet dance to become a brand new kind in its claim. Well-known dancers throughout the Sixties and Seventies enclosed Arthur dancer and Tommy Tune.

No Maps on My faucets, the honor victory PBS documentary of 1979, helped begin the recent revival of faucet dance. The outstanding success of the animated film, Happy Feet, has additionally strengthened the popular attractiveness. National faucet Dance Day at u. s., currently celebrated might twenty-five, was signed into law by President George Bush on Nov seven, 1989. (May twenty-five was chosen as a result of it’s the birthday of far-famed tapper Bill “Bojangles” Robinson.) outstanding trendy faucet dancers have enclosed Sarah Reich, Brenda Bufalino, Melinda Sullivan, The Clark Brothers, Savion Glover, Gregory and Maurice Hines, LaVaughn Robinson, mythical being Samuels Smith, Chloe Arnold, Michelle Dorrance, Dulé Hill and Dianne “Lady Di” Walker.

Indie-pop band Tilly {and the|and therefore the|and additionally the} Wall also options a faucet dancer, Jamie Pressnall, sound as percussion. An additional gift day, important, dancer is Anthony Morigerato. some samples of his accomplishments area unit as follows: he’s the manager director and creator for the big apple town based mostly AM Productions, a player in Michael Minery’s “Tapaholics,” has performed on stages everywhere the globe associate degreed even created a look on NBC’s America’s Got Talent, associate degreed has served as a person and master teacher for multiple dance organizations throughout the state since 1999.


Tap dancers build frequent use of syncopation. Choreography generally starts on the eighth or 1st beat count. Another facet of hoofing is improvisation. hoofing will either be finished music following the beats provided or while not musical accompaniment; the latter is thought as “a cappella faucet dancing”.

Hoofers area unit faucet dancers UN agency dance primarily “closer to the floor”, victimization largely footwork and not showing pretty much arm or body movement. This kind of hoofing, additionally referred to as rhythm faucet, was used by slaves in America.[citation needed] as a result of the slaves were usually not allowed to follow their own culture and customs, they mixed their sort of diversion with Irish stepdance to make faucet dances that would be hidden from slave homeowners and overseers.

This can be the origin of the faucet and what later evolved into (what the general public grasp as faucet now) “show tap”, as a result of it uses additional arm movement. this manner evolved as a result of show faucet was thought to be additional exciting to observe and have become far-famed once show faucet was placed on Great White Way.

Steve Condos developed associate degree innovative cadenced faucet vogue that influenced the work of later faucet dancers like Gregory Hines and Savion Glover. the bulk of early hoofers, like Sammy Davis son., Glover, Hines, and LaVaughn Robinson were African Yankee men.[citation needed] Savion Glover helped bring faucet dance into thought media by choreographing Happy Feet, a movie a couple of hoofing sphenisciform seabird. Another well-known faucet film is 1989’s faucet, major Gregory Hines and lots of olde worlde hoofers.

Early tappers like role player provided an additional room look to hoofing, whereas role player introduced ballet parts and elegance into the faucet. This kind of faucet LED to what’s nowadays called Great White Way vogue, that is standard in Yankee culture. It usually involves high heeled faucet shoes and show music, and is sometimes the sort of faucet 1st tutored by beginners. samples of this vogue area unit found in Great White Way musicals like something Goes and Forty-second Street.

Common faucet steps embody the shuffle, shuffle ball modification, double shuffle, leap shuffle, hop shuffle, flap, flap ball modification, running flaps, flap heel, cramproll, buffalo, Maxi Ford, maxi Ford with a pullback, pullbacks, wings, Cincinnati, the wedge sham shimmy (also referred to as the Lindy), Irish, waltz clog, the paddle roll, the drum roll, stomp, brushes, scuffs, spanks, riffs, and single and double toe punches, hot steps, heel clicks, time steps, over-the-tops, military time step, New Yorkers, Shiggy Bops, drawbacks, and chugs. In advanced hoofing, basic steps area unit usually combined along to make new steps.

several steps even have single, double, and triple versions, together with pullbacks, timesteps, and disadvantages. In tap, numerous kinds of turns are often done, together with step heel turns, maxi Ford turns, cramp roll turns, and drag turns. Timesteps area unit wide employed in the faucet and may vary in several areas. These encompass a rhythm that’s modified to create new timesteps by adding or removing steps.

Tap dancing can even be done victimization associate degree a cappella technique, within which no voice is provided and dancers making their own “music” through the sounds of their faucets.

In cluster faucet dances, the steps area unit generally unbroken easy and straightforward to regulate. The cluster of dancers should work along to make the sound, keeping their steps at the right speed to match one another.

Tap shoes

In the earliest years of hoofing, faucet shoes usually had wood soles, but most faucet shoes since have had animal skin soles. Today, it’s common for makers of faucet shoes to additionally turn out and fix faucets. There area unit a range of designs of a shoe, the Oxford shoe being quite common in jazz dance, and marijuana (shoe) is common for young women in faucet categories. Tap shoe manufacturers embody composer and Capezio.


Metallic faucets were superimposed to faucet shoes in 1910. Before that faucet shoes used wood to provide a definite sound. bones were usually used for larger shows with full orchestration. betting on manufacturer and model, faucet characteristics will vary significantly. as an example, some faucets have comparatively low weight and tiny footprint, whereas others are also thicker and fill out the sting of the shoe additional, creating them heavier as a result. A tap’s “tone” is influenced by its weight still as its surface form, which can be cup-shaped or umbellate. The tonal quality of a faucet can even be influenced by the fabric it’s made of, and therefore the presence of a resonating chamber (though there’s some dialogue whether or not this affects the sound).

Taps area unit mounted to the only of the shoe with screws, and typically adhesive still. The screws area unit driven into a resonating chamber – a skinny fibreboard integrated into the only which will be firmly “gripped” by the screws – to faithfully attach the faucet to the shoe. once no adhesive is employed, the screws are often disentangled or tightened to provide completely different sounds, whereas tonal quality is fastened once adhesive is employed.

(Shahinul Islam Uzzal)

Contemporary - dance

Contemporary dance | Contemporary dance wiki

Contemporary Dance

Contemporary dance was developed throughout the middle twentieth century and it’s since adult to become one in all the dominant genres for formally trained dancers throughout the globe, with notably robust quality within the U.S. and Europe. though originally knowing and borrowing from classical, modern, and jazz designs, it’s since come back to include parts from several sorts of dance. Due to its technical similarities, it’s usually seemed to be closely associated with stage dancing, ballet, and alternative classical choreography designs.

In terms of the main focus of its technique, modern dance tends to mix the robust however controlled legwork of ballet with fashionable that stresses on the body. It also employs contract-release, floor work, fall and recovery, and improvisation characteristics of contemporary dance. Unpredictable changes in rhythm, speed, and direction square measure usually used, as well. in addition, modern dance generally incorporates parts of non-western dance cultures, like parts from African dance together with bent knees, or movements from the Japanese modern dance, Butoh.

Contemporary dance attracts every ballet and saltation, whereas postmodernist dance was a direct and opposite response to salvation. the professional dancer is taken into account to be the primary creator to “develop associate freelance perspective towards fashionable dance” and defy the concepts that were established by it. In 1944 dancer accompanied his dance with music by Cage, UN agency discovered that Cunningham’s dance “no longer depends on linear elements (…) nor can it take into account a movement towards and removed from the climax.

As in abstract painting, it’s assumed that part (a movement, a sound, an amendment of light) is in and of itself expressive; what it communicates is in massive half determined by the observer themselves.” dancer fashioned the professional dancer Dance Company in 1953 and went on to form over 100 and fifty works for the corporate, several of that are performed internationally by ballet and stage dancing firms.

Cunningham’s key concepts

  1. Contemporary dance will refuse the classical ballet’s leg technique in favor of contemporary dance’s stress on the body
  2.  Contemporary dance isn’t essentially narrative kind of art
    The choreography that seems disordered, however still depends on the technique
  3.  Unpredictable changes in rhythm, speed, and direction
    Multiple and coincident actions
  4. Suspension of perspective and symmetry in ballet scenic frame perspectives like front, center, and hierarchies
  5.  Creative freedom
    “Independence between dance and music”
    Dance to be danced, not analyzed
  6.  Innovative lighting, sets, and costumes together with Andy Warhol, Henry Martyn Robert Rauschenberg, and Jasper Johns
    Other pioneers of latest dance (the offspring of contemporary and postmodern) embrace Ruth St. Denis, Greek deity Humphrey, Virgin Mary Wigman, Francois Delsarte, Émile Jaques-Dalcroze, Paul Taylor, Rudolph von choreographer, Loie Fuller, Jose Limon and Marie Rambert.

Choreographer’s role

There is sometimes a creator WHO makes the inventive selections associated decides whether or not the piece is an abstract or a narrative one. Dancers square measure selected supported their talent and coaching. The choreography is decided supported its reference to the music or sounds that are danced to. The role of music in modern dance is completely different from in alternative genres as a result of it will function a scenery to the piece. The creator has management over the costumes and their aesthetic price for the general composition of the performance and additionally with reference to however they influence dancers’ movements.

Dance technique

Contemporary - dance
Dance techniques and movement philosophies utilized in modern dance might embrace modern ballet, Dance improvisation, stage dancing designs from us like Graham technique, Humphrey-Weidman technique, and Horton technique, stage dancing of Europe Bartenieff Fundamentals and also the dance technique of Duncan (also see Free dance).

Contemporary dancers train mistreatment of modern dance techniques moreover as non-dance connected practices like Pilates, Yoga, the acting observe of Corporeal mime – Étienne Decroux technique and corporeal practices like Alexander technique, Feldenkrais methodology, Sullivan Technique and Franklin-Methode, yank modern techniques like José Limón technique and Hawkins technique and postmodernist dance techniques like Contact improvisation and dance technique, and unharness technique.

Some well-known choreographers and creators of latest dance created faculties and techniques of their own. Paul Taylor developed a dance technique known as Taylor technique, that is currently tutored at stage dancing faculties just like the choreographer college in big apple town.



(Shahinul Islam Uzzal)


Belly Dance | Belly Dance History | Belly Dance Wiki

Belly Dance

Belly dance is thought of as Arabic dance that originated in Egypt and it’s evolved to require many alternative forms counting on the country and region, each in costume and dance vogue.

Origins and history

It is believed that Belly dance encompasses a long history within the Middle East, however reliable proof concerning its origins is scarce, and accounts of its history area unit typically extremely speculative. many Greek and Roman sources, as well as Decimus Junius Juvenalis and Martial, describe dancers from Anatolia and Spain victimization undulating movements, taking part in clappers, and sinking to the ground with “quivering thighs”, descriptions that area unit actually suggestive the movements that we tend to these days escort belly dance.

Later, notably within the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, European travelers within the Middle East like Edward Lane and Gustave Flaubert wrote extensively of the dancers they saw there, as well as the Awalim and Ghawazee of Egypt. within the Turkish Empire belly dance was performed by each boy and girl within the Sultan’s palace.

Social Context

Within the Middle East, Belly dance is considered as a folk or social dance and as a performance art.

As a social dance, belly dance is performed at celebrations and social gatherings by standard folks (male and feminine, young and old), in their standard garments. in additional conservative or ancient societies, these events could also be gender isolated, with separate parties wherever men and girls dance single.

Historically, skilled dance performers were the Awalim (primarily musicians and poets), Ghawazi, and Köçekler. It is thought that the Maazin sisters are the last authentic performers of Ghawazi dance in Egypt.

In the era, skilled performers (including dancers, singers, and actors) don’t seem to be thought of to be respectable within the Middle East, and there’s a robust social stigma connected to feminine performers specifically since they show their bodies publicly, that is taken into account haram in Islam.

In Egypt

Belly dance in Egypt

Working in Cairo area unit a number of the foremost known bellydancers, costume designers, and gifted musicians.

The modern Egyptian belly dance vogue (and the fashionable costume) area unit typically aforementioned to possess originated at Cairo’s Night Clubs so to Egyptian Cinema since over a century. several of the native dancers went on to look in Egyptian films and had a good influence on the event of the Egyptian vogue and gained Brobdingnagian fame like genus Samia Gamal and Taheyya Kariokka UN agency each helped attract the eyes to Egyptian vogue worldwide.

Egyptian belly dance is noted for its controlled, precise movements. Terms that area unit typically wont to describe the Egyptian sort of dance is solo, elegant, smooth, internalized movement, controlled, flow, graceful, choked with feeling.

In Turkey

Turkish belly dance is observed in Turkey as Oryantal Dans, or just ‘Oriental’. The Turkish sort of Bellydance is spirited and coltish, with a bigger outward projection of energy than the additional contained Egyptian vogue. Turkish dancers area unit illustrious for his or her energetic, athletic (even gymnastic) vogue, and their adept use of clappers, additionally referred to as zils. Connoisseurs of Turkish dance typically say a dancer UN agency cannot play the zils isn’t associate degree accomplished dancer. Floorwork, that has been prohibited in Egypt since the mid-20th century, remains a crucial a part of Turkish Bellydance.

Another identifying component of Turkish vogue is that the use of a 9/8 rhythm, counted as 12-34-56-789, typically observed as Karsilama rhythm. Many skilled dancers and musicians in Turkey still be of itinerant heritage, and also the Roma folks of Turkey have had a robust influence on the Turkish Vogue

In Lebanon

Lebanese dance takes from the classic oriental dance, however still incorporates a feisty, fashionable edge. There area unit massive steps, backward lean to the body, twisting hip rotations, massive and busy arms and much of shimmies. the categories of techniques that area unit employed in Lebanese vogue dance area unit fast superimposed shimmies and delicate internal movements. Lebanese dancers generally embody kicks, splits, deep backbends, and Turkish drops.

Outside the center East

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Belly dance was popularized within the West throughout the Romantic movement of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, once specialized artists pictured romanticized pictures of serial life within the Turkish Empire.

In North America

Although there have been dancers of this kind at the 1876 Centennial in the metropolis, it absolutely was not till the 1893 Chicago World’s honest that it gained national attention. The term “belly dancing” is commonly attributable to Sol Bloom, its diversion director, however, observed the dance as danse du ventre, the name utilized by the French in the African country. In his memoirs, Bloom states, “when the general public learned that the literal translation was “belly dance”, they delightedly complete that it should be salacious and immoral…I had a gold mine.”

Authentic dancers from many geographic regions and geographical area countries performed at the honest, as well as Syria, Turkey, and Algeria—but it absolutely was the dancers within the Egyptian Theater of the road within the Cairo exhibit UN agency gained the foremost ill fame. the actual fact that the dancers were uncorseted and gyrated their hips was stunning to Victorian sensibilities. there have been no soloists, however, it’s claimed that a dancer nicknamed very little Egypt scarf for the show. Some claim the dancer was Farida Mazar Spyropoulos, however, this truth is controversial.

The popularity of those dancers after spawned dozens of imitators, several of whom claimed to be from the initial organization. Victorian society continued to be insulted by the dance, and dancers were generally in remission and punished. The dance was nicknamed the “Hoochie Coochie”, or the shimmy and shake. a brief film, “Fatima’s Dance”, was cosmopolitan within the record player theaters. It actor criticism for its “immodest” saltation, and was eventually censored. Belly dance actor men in droves to burlesque theaters, and to the carnival and circus tons.

Thomas Edison created many films of dancers within the Eighteen Nineties. These enclosed a Turkish dance, and Crissie Sheridan in 1897, and blue blood aristocrat from 1904, that options a dancer taking part in zills, doing “floor work”, and reconciliation a chair in her teeth.

Ruth St. Denis additionally used Middle Eastern-inspired dance in D. W. Griffith’s silent film Intolerance, her goal being to carry dance to a decent variety at a time once dancers were thought of to be girls of loose morals. Hollywood began manufacturing films like The Sheik, Cleopatra, and Salomé, to exploit Western fantasies of the Orient.

When immigrants from The Arab States began to arrive in the big apple within the Nineteen Thirties, dancers began to perform in nightclubs and restaurants. in the late Sixties and early ’70s, several dancers began teaching. japanese|geographical area|geographic area|geographical region|geographic region} or Eastern bands took dancers with them traveling, that helped spark interest in the dance.

Although victimization of Turkish and Egyptian movements and music, Yankee Cabaret (“AmCab”) belly dance have developed its own distinctive vogue, victimization props and inspiring audience interaction.

In 1987, a distinctively Yankee sort of cluster improvisational dance, Yankee social group vogue Belly Dance, (ATS), was created. though a novel and totally fashionable vogue, its steps area unit supported existing dance techniques, as well as those from the North Asian country, the center East, and Africa.

In Spain

Belly dancers area unit thought to own come back to The European nation from The Asian nation within the time of the Phoenicians (11th Century B.C. to fifth Century BC). once Arab family of the Ommiad came to The European nation, they sent Basque singers and dancers to Damascus and Egypt for coaching within the geographic area vogue. These dancers came to be referred to as Al Andalus dancers. it’s theorized that the fusion of the Al-Andalus vogue with the dances of the Gypsies LED to the creation of flamenco.

Belly dance failed to come back to The European nation till the Eighties, with the tip of the Catholic regime of El Caudillo.

In Australia

The first wave of interest in belly dance in Australia was throughout the late Nineteen-Seventies to Eighties with the inflow of migrants and refugees escaping troubles within the geographic area, as well as percussionist Jamal Zraika. These immigrants created a social scene as well as varied Lebanese and Turkish restaurants, providing employment for belly dancers. Rozeta Ahalyea is widely considered the “mother” of Australian belly dance, coaching early dance pioneers like Amera Eid and Terezka Drnzik. Belly dance has currently unfolded across the country, with belly dance communities in each capital town and lots of regional centers.

In the UK

Belly dance has been conspicuous within Britain since the first Sixties. throughout the Nineteen Seventies and Eighties, In London, there was Arabic club where there was belly dancing with live belly music, however the last of those closed the first Nineteen Nineties. many distinguished members of a people belly dance community began their dance careers operating in these clubs.

Today, there area unit fewer ancient venues for Arabic dance within Britain, however, there’s an oversized amateur belly dance community. JWAAD, The Raqs Sharqi Society and alternative teams and people have developed “teacher training” for belly dancers. Networks for a people belly dance community embody the Mosaic Arabic Dance Network (MADN)and the Northern Arabic Dance Association (NADA), each of that publish their own community magazines. Several international belly dance festivals area unit currently command in the United Kingdom. additionally, there area unit a growing variety of competitions, that have accumulated in quality in recent years.

The UK belly dance scene leans powerfully towards the Egyptian/Arabic vogue, with very little Turkish influence. yankee social group vogue and social group Fusion belly dance also are fashionable.


Belly dance costume

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The costume was related to belly dance is that was called the ‘bedlah’ (Arabic: بدلة‎; virtually “suit”) vogue, which generally includes a fitted high or undergarment, a fitted hip belt, and a full-length skirt or harem pants. The undergarment and belt could also be richly adorned with beads, sequins, crystals, coins, beaded fringe, and embroidery. The belt could also be a separate piece or seamed into a skirt.

Badia Masabni, a Cairo cabaret owner throughout the first twentieth century, is attributable to making the fashionable bedlah vogue. it’s been instructed that the bedlah was galvanized by exciting Hollywood costuming or created to charm to Western guests. Earlier costumes were created from a skirt, lightweight chemise and tightly cropped vest with significant gildings and jewelry.

As well because the two-piece bedlah costume, full-length dresses area unit generally worn, particularly once diversion additional earthy baladi designs. Dresses vary from closely fitting, extremely adorned robes, which frequently feature significant gildings and mesh-covered cutouts, to easier styles that area unit usually supported ancient consumer goods.

Costume in Egypt

In Egypt, dancers wear a bedlah. instead, they’ll wear a dress with mesh-filled cutouts.

Costume in The Asian nation

As there’s no prohibition on showing the abdomen in The Asian nation, the bedlah vogue is additional common. The skirts tend to be additional sheer than Egyptian outfits, showing additional of the dancer’s body. The veil is additional widely used than in Egypt. High heels area unit unremarkably worn. Lebanese dancers have additional freedom than Egyptian vogue dancers within the variety of costume they prefer to wear.

Costume in Turkey

Turkish costumes area unit typically within the bedlah vogue. Many Turkish costumes embody a formed or triangular belt which can be formed or contoured round the high edge, and an excellent deal of embellishment and beaded fringing on each of the undergarment and therefore the belt. Skirts area unit usually fuller than their Egyptian counterparts, and area unit seemingly to be fabricated from chiffon or velvet instead of lycra.

In the Eighties and ’90s, an awfully revealing costume vogue developed with skirts designed to show each leg up to the hip, and plunging bras or maybe pasties. Such designs still exist in some venues however there also are several Turkish belly dancers World Health Organization wear additional moderate costumes. Even so, several Turkish belly dance costumes replicate the coltish, flirty kind of Turkish belly dance.

Tribal vogue costumes

Decorations on a tribal-style belly dance costume undergarment
Tribal belly dance costumes draw inspiration from ancient folkloric costumes across the world and embody circle skirts, pantaloons, and turbans or headdresses clothed with feathers or flowers.


Belly dance may be a non-impact, weight-bearing exercise and is so appropriate for all ages. Many of the moves involve isolations, that improves the flexibleness of the trunk. Belly dance moves area unit helpful to the spine because the full-body undulation moves lengthen (decompress) and strengthen the complete column of spinal and abdominal muscles during a light approach.

Dancing with a veil will facilitate build strength within the higher body, arm, and shoulders. taking part in the zills trains fingers to figure severally and builds strength. The legs and long muscles of the rear area unit reinforced by hip movements.

(Shahinul Islam Uzzal)


Bharatanatyam Dance | Bharatanatyam dance wiki

Bharatanatyam Dance

Bharatanatyam is a major genre of Indian classical dance that originated in Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, Bharatanatyam has been a solo dance that was performed exclusively by women, and expressed Hindu religious themes and spiritual ideas, particularly of Shaivism, but also of Vaishnavism and Shaktism.

Bharatanatyam’s theoretical foundations trace to the ancient Sanskrit text by Bharata Muni, Natya Shastra, its existence by 2nd century CE is noted in the ancient Tamil epic Silappatikaram, while temple sculptures of 6th to 9th century CE suggest it was a well-refined performance art by mid 1st millennium CE. Bharatanatyam may be the oldest classical dance tradition in India.

Bharatanatyam style is noted for its fixed upper torso, legs bent or knees flexed out combined with spectacular footwork, a sophisticated vocabulary of sign language based on gestures of hands, eyes and facial muscles. The dance is accompanied by music and a singer, and typically her guru is present as the director and conductor of the performance and art. The dance has traditionally been a form of an interpretive narration of mythical legends and spiritual ideas from the Hindu texts. The performance repertoire of Bharatanatyam, like other classical dances, includes nritta (pure dance), nritya (solo expressive dance) and Natya (group dramatic dance).

Bharatanatyam remained exclusive to Hindu temples through the 19th century, was banned by the colonial British government in 1910, the Indian community protested against the ban and expanded it outside the temples in the 20th century. Modern stage productions of Bharatanatyam have incorporated technical performances, pure dance based on non-religious ideas and fusion themes.

The term Bharatanatyam (Tamil: பரத நாட்டியம்) is a compound of two words, Bharata and Natyam.
The term Bharata in Bharatanaytam, in the Hindu tradition, is in fact named after the famous performance art sage to whom the ancient Natya Shastra is attributed. There is a false belief that the word Bharata is a mnemonic, consisting of “bha”–”a”–”ta”. According to this belief, bha stands for bhava (feelings, emotions), a stands for raga (melody, a framework for musical notes), and ta stands for tala (rhythm).

The term Natyam is a Sanskrit word for “dance”. The compound word Bharatanatyam thus connotes a dance which harmoniously expresses “bhava, raga, and tala”.
In its history, Bharatanatyam has also been called Sadir.


Dancers at Thanjavur, Brihadeshwara temple dedicated to Shiva. The temple has been a major center for Bharatanatyam since about 1000 CE.
The theoretical foundations of Bharatanatyam are found in Natya Shastra, the ancient Hindu text of performance arts.

Natya Shastra is attributed to the ancient scholar Bharata Muni, and its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE, but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE. The most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters. The text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance (Shiva), the theory of rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of Indian classical dances. Dance and performance arts, states this ancient text, are a form of expression of spiritual ideas, virtues and the essence of scriptures.

More direct historical references to Bharatnatyam is found in the Tamil epics Silappatikaram (~2nd century CE and Manimegalai (~6th century). The ancient text Silappatikaram includes a story of a dancing girl named Madhavi; it describes the dance training regimen called Arangatrau Kathai of Madhavi in verses 113 through 159. The carvings in Kanchipuram’s Shiva temple that have been dated to 6th to 9th century CE suggest Bharatanatyam was a well-developed performance art by about the mid 1st millennium CE.

A famous example of an illustrative sculpture is in the southern gateway of the Chidambaram temple (~12th century) dedicated to Hindu god Shiva, where 108 poses of the Bharatnatyam, that are also described as karanas in the Natya Shastra, are carved in stone.

Many of the ancient Shiva sculptures in Hindu temples are same as the Bharata Natyam dance poses. For example, the Cave 1 of Badami cave temples, dated to 7th-century, portrays the Tandava-dancing Shiva as Nataraja. The image, 5 feet (1.5 m) tall, has 18 arms in a form that expresses the dance positions arranged in a geometric pattern. The arms of Shiva express mudras (symbolic hand gestures), that are found in Bharatanatyam.

Bharatanatyam, state Allen Noble, and Ashok Dutt have been “a major source of inspiration to the musicians, poets, painters, singers, and sculptors” in Indian history.

Devadasis, anti-dance movement, colonial ban, and the decline
Some colonial Indologists and modern authors have stated Bharatanatyam is a descendant of an ancient Devadasi (literally, servant girls of Deva temples) culture, suggesting historical origins to 300 BCE to 300 CE.Modern scholarship has questioned this theory for lack of any direct textual or archeological evidence. Historic sculpture and texts do describe and project dancing girls, as well as temple quarters dedicated to women, but they do not state them to be courtesans and prostitutes alleged by early colonial Indologists.

According to Davesh Soneji, a critical examination of evidence suggest that the courtesan dancing is a modern era phenomenon, which began in late 16th or 17th century of the Nayaka period of Tamil Nadu. According to James Lochtefeld, Bharatanatyam remained exclusive to Hindu temples through the 19th century, and it appeared on stage outside the temples only in the 20th century.
Rukmini Devi Arundale helped revive Bharatanatyam after all Hindu temple dancing was banned by the British colonial government in 1910.

With the arrival of colonial East India Company officials rule in the 18th century, and the establishment of British colonial rule in 19th, many classical Indian dance forms were ridiculed and discouraged, and these performance arts declined.

Christian missionaries and British officials presented “nautch girls” of north India (Kathak) and “devadasis” of south India (Bharatanatyam) as evidence of “harlots, debased erotic culture, slavery to idols and priests” tradition, and Christian missionaries demanded that this must be stopped, launching the “anti-dance movement” in 1892. The anti-dance camp accused the dance form as a front for prostitution, while revivalists questioned the constructed histories by the colonial writers.

In 1910, the Madras Presidency of the British Empire altogether banned temple dancing, and with it the Bharatanatyam tradition within Hindu temples.

Postcolonial era: revival and                      rebirth

The 1910 ban triggered powerful protests against the stereotyping and dehumanization of temple dancers. The Tamil people were concerned that a historic and rich dance tradition was being victimized under the excuse of social reform.

The classical art revivalists such as E. Krishna Iyer, a lawyer and someone who had learned the Bharatanatyam dance, questioned the cultural discrimination and the assumed connection, asking why prostitution needs years of learning and training for performing arts such as the Bharatanatyam, and how can killing performance arts end any evils in a society? Iyer was arrested and sentenced to prison on charges of nationalism, who while serving out his prison term persuaded his fellow political prisoners to support Bharatanatyam.

While the British colonial government enforced laws to suppress Bharatanatyam and all Hindu temple dances, some from the West such as the American dancer Esther Sherman moved to India in 1930, learned Indian classical dances, changed her name to Ragini Devi, and joined the movement to save and revive Bharatanatyam and other ancient dance arts.

The Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, already in progress, became a period of cultural ferment and initiated an effort by its people to reclaim their culture and rediscover history. In this period of cultural and political turmoil, instead of Bharatnatyam becoming extinct, it expanded out of Hindu temples and was revived as a mainstream dance by Bharatnatyam artists such as Rukmini Devi Arundale and Balasaraswati. They championed and performed the Pandanallur (Kalakshetra) and Thanjavur styles of Bharatanatyam respectively.

In the late 20th century, Tamil Hindu migrants reintroduced the Bharatanatyam traditions of temple dancing in British Tamil temples.


The bent knee posture is quite common in a Bharatanatyam performance.
Bharata Natyam is historically a team performance art that consists of a feminine solo dancer, in the middle of musicians and one or additional singers. the speculation behind the musical notes, vocal performance and also the dance movement trace back to the traditional Natya Shastra, and lots of Sanskritic language and Tamil texts like the Abhinaya Darpana.

The solo creator (ekaharya) in Bharatanatyam is wearing a colorful frock, adorned with jewelry UN agency presents a dance synchronous with Indian musical genre. Her hand and facial gestures square measure written linguistic communication that recites a legend, religious ideas or a non-secular prayer derived from Hindu religious writing scriptures, the religious writing, the Sanskrit literature, the Puranas and historic drama texts. The dancer deploys turns or specific body movements to mark punctuations within the story or the entry of a special character within the play or legend being acted out through dance (Abhinaya).

The footwork, visual communication, postures, musical notes, the tones of the player, aesthetics, and costumes integrate to specific and communicate the underlying text.

In fashionable variations, Bharata Natyam dance troupes could involve several dancers that play specific characters of a story, creatively choreographed to ease the interpretation and expand the expertise to the audience.

The repertoire of Bharatanatyam, like all major classical Indian dance forms, follows the 3 classes of performance within the Natya Shastra. These square measure Nritta (Northam), Nritya (Niruthiyam) and Natya (Natyam).

The purpose

Bharata Natyam is associate art that consecrates the body. The dancer, UN agency dissolves her identity in rhythm and music, makes her body associate instrument, a minimum of for the period of the dance, for the expertise and expression of the spirit.
The traditional order of Bharata Natyam recital viz. alarippu, jatiswaram, varnam, padams, tillana and also the shloka is that the correct sequence within the observes of this art, that is a creative Yoga, for revealing the religious through the corporeal.

Balasaraswati, a Bharatanatyam devadasi
The Nritta performance is an abstract, quick and sapphic facet of the dance. The viewer is conferred with pure movement in Bharatanatyam, whereby the stress is that the beauty of motion, form, speed, vary and pattern. This a part of the repertoire has no interpretive facet, no telling of the story. it’s a technical performance and aims to interact the senses (Prakriti) of the audience.

The Nritya is slower and communicative facet of the dance that tries to speak feelings, plot notably with religious themes in Hindu dance traditions. in a nritya, the dance-acting expands to incorporate silent expression of words through gestures and body motion set to musical notes. The actor articulates a legend or a religious message. This a part of a Bharatanatyam repertoire is over sensory enjoyment, it aims to interact the emotions and mind of the viewer.

The Natyam may be a play, usually a team performance, however, will be acted out by a solo performing artist wherever the dancer uses bound standardized body movements to point a brand new character within the underlying story. A Natya incorporates the weather of a Nritya.


The traditional Bharatanatyam performance follows a seven-part order of presentation. This set of things square measure referred to as ‘Margam’


The presentation begins with a sapphic invocation (Vandana) referred to as the Alaripu. it’s a pure dance, which mixes thanks and benediction for blessings from the gods and goddesses, the guru and also the gathered performance team. It additionally is a prelim heat up dance, while not melody, to modify to dancer to loosen her body, journey removed from distractions and towards the resolved focus.


The next stage of the performance adds melody to the movement of Alarippu, and this is often referred to as Jatiswaram. The dance remains a prelim technical performance (nritta), pure in type and with none expressed words. The drums set the beat, of any Carnatic music raga (melody). She performs a sequence (Korvai) to the rhythm of the beat, presenting to the audience the unity of music, rhythm, and movements.


The performance sequence then adds Shabdam (expressed words). The solo dancer, the vocalist(s) and also the musical team, during this stage of the assembly, gift short compositions, with words and which means, during a spectrum of moods.


The Varnam a part of Bharatanatyam emphasizes communicative dance.
The performance thenceforth evolves into the Varnam stage. This marks the arrival into the sanctum sanctorum core of the performance. It is the longest section and also the nritya. a standard Varnam is also as long as 30-45 minutes or typically an associate hour.

Varnam supply large scope for improvisation associated with a full-fledged dancer will stretch the Varnam to a fascinating length. The creator presents the play or the most composition, reveling altogether her movements, mutely human activity the text through written gestures and footwork, harmoniously with the music, rhythmically punctuated. The dancer performs sophisticated moves, like expressing a verse at 2 speeds. Her hands and body tell a story, whether or not of affection and yearning, or of a battle between the nice and also the evil because the musicians enfold her with musical notes and tones that set the acceptable mood.


The Padam follows next within the sequence of the performance. this is often the stage of reverence, of simplicity, of abhinaya (expression) of the solemn religious message or pious non-secular prayer (bhakti). The music is lighter, the mantra intimate, the dance emotional. The choreography tries to specific rasa (emotional taste) and a mood, whereas the recital could embrace things like a keertanam (expressing devotion), a javali (expressing divine love) or one thing else.


The performance sequence ends with a Tillana, the climax. It closes out the nritya portion, the movements exit the temple of communicative dance, returning to the nritta vogue, wherever a series of pure movement and music square measure rhythmically performed. with that, the performance ends.

The overall sequence of Bharatanatyam, states Balasaraswati, so moves from “mere meter; then melody and meter; continued with music, which means and meter; its growth within the centerpiece of the varnam; thenceforth, music and which means while not meter; (…) a non-metrical song at the tip. we tend to see a marvelous completeness and symmetry in this art”.

Costumes in Bharatanatyam/

The attires of a Bharatanatyam dancer resembles a Tamil Hindu’s bridal dress. It consists of a tailor fitted bright colored frock, with a special folded artifact sewed that falls before and opens sort of a hand fan once she flexes her knees or performs footwork. The frock is worn in a special manner, wrapping the rear and body contour tightly, past one shoulder and its finish then control by a jewelry belt at the waist.

She is usually adorned with jewelry, outlining her head or hair, on ear, nose, and neck. Her face has standard makeup, eyes lined and ringed by eye-lotion that facilitate viewers see her eye expressions. To her ankles, she wraps one or additional animal skin anklets [ Ghungroos ]. Her hair is betrothed in an ancient manner, usually adorned in with sweet flowers (veni or gajra).

The fingers and feet outlines are also partly colored red with kumkum powder, a dressing up tradition that helps the audience additional simply read her hand gestures.

Vocal Aspects and Musical                Instruments

The related music to Bharatanatyam is within the Carnatic kind of South Bharat, as is that the recitation and intonation. The player is named the nattuvanar (or taladhari), usually additionally the conductor of the complete performance, UN agency even be|is also} the guru of the dancer and should also be enjoying cymbals or one amongst the musical instruments. The recited verses and text in Bharatanatyam square measure in Tamil, Telugu, Kanarese and Sanskritic language.

The instruments used embrace the mridangam (double-sided drum), nadaswaram (long sort of hautboy made of a black wood), nattuvangam (cymbals), the flute, bowed stringed instrument and veena.


Bharatanatyam, like all classical dances of Bharat, is steeped in symbolism each in its abhinaya (acting) and its goals. The roots of abhinaya square measure found within the Natyashastra text that defines drama in verse vi.10 as that that esthetically arouses joy within the spectator, through the medium of actor’s art of communication, that helps connect and transport the individual into a brilliant sensual inner state of being.

A performance art asserts Natyashastra, connects the artists and also the audience through abhinaya (literally, “carrying to the spectators”), that’s applying body-speech-mind and scene, whereby the actors communicate to the audience, through song and music. Drama in this ancient Sanskritic language text so is associate art to interact each facet of life, so as to glorify and gift a state of joyful consciousness.

Example mudras – gestures as symbols in Bharatanatyam.
The communication through symbols is the kind of communicative gestures and pantomime set to music. The gestures and facial expressions convey the ras (sentiment, emotional taste) and bhava (mood) of the underlying story.

Within the Hindu texts on dance, the dancer with success expresses the religious ideas by listening to four aspects of a performance: Angika (gestures and body language), Vachika (song, recitation, music and rhythm), Acharya (stage setting, costume, makeup, jewelry), and Sattvika (artist’s mental disposition and emotional reference to the story and audience, whereby the artist’s inner and outer state resonates). Abhinaya attracts out the bhava (mood, psychological states).

The gestures employed in Bharatanatyam square measure referred to as Hasta (or mudras). These symbols square measure of 3 types: asamyuta hastas (single hand gestures), samyuta hastas (two hand gestures) and nrtta hastas (dance hand gestures). Like words during a gloss, these gestures square measure conferred within the nritta as an inventory or embellishment to a prelim performance. In nritya stage of Bharatanatyam, these symbols set in a bound sequence become sentences with which means, with emotions expressed through facial expressions and alternative aspects of abhinaya.

Modern revival: faculties and coaching centers

An expression through gesture in Bharatanatyam.
Bharatanatyam speedily dilated when Bharat gained freedom from country rule out 1947. it’s currently the foremost {popular|well-liked|in vogue|fashionable|common|widespread|standard} classical Bharatn dance style in India, enjoys high degree of support in expatriate Indian communities and is taken into account to be similar with Indian dance by several foreigners unaware of the range of dances and performance arts in Indian culture. in the last half of the twentieth century, Bharatanatyam has been to Indian dance tradition what ballet has been within the West.

When country tried to try to banish Bharatanatyam traditions, it went on and revived by moving outside the Hindu temple and spiritual ideas. However, post-independence, with rising interest in its history, the traditional traditions, the invocation rituals and also the religious communicative a part of the dance has come. many inventions and developments in fashionable Bharatanatyam state Anne-Marie Geston, square measure of a sacred sort. Major cities in Bharat currently have varied faculties that supply lessons in Bharatanatyam, and these cities host many shows each year.

Outside Bharat, Bharatanatyam may be a wanted and studied dance, states Meduri, in educational institutes within u. s., Europe, Canada, Australia, Sri Lanka, Asian nation and Singapore. For expat Indian and Tamil communities in several countries, it’s a supply and means that for social life and community bonding. up to date, Bharatanatyam choreographies embrace each male and feminine dancers

(Shahinul Islam Uzzal)


Kathak Dance | Kathak Dance wiki | Kathak Dance history

Kathak Dance

There are several classical dance forms in Asian nation and Kathak is one amongst them. Origin of Kathak has thought from the traveling bards of ancient northern Asian nation referred to as Kathakars or storytellers. Kathak came from a Sanskritic language word Katha which implies “story” and Kathaka which implies “he WHO tells a story” or to try to with stories”. Like Greek theatre, Kathakas communicated stories from the good epics and ancient mythology through dance, songs, and music. Kathak evolved throughout the devotion movement, notably by incorporating the childhood and stories of the Hindu god avatar, in addition as severally within the courts of north Indian kingdoms.

Kathak has 3 forms, they are Jaipur, Banaras, and Lucknow. In Kathak dance foot movements, little bells (Ghungroo), and also the movement harmonical to the music area unit important. The legs and toes area unit typically straight, and also the story is told through a developed vocabulary supported the gestures of arms and higher body movement, facial expressions, stage movements, bends, and turns. the most focus of the dance becomes the eyes and also the foot movements. The eyes work as a medium of communication of the story the dancer is making an attempt to speak. With the eyebrows, the dancer provides numerous facial expressions. The distinction between the sub-traditions is that the relative stress of acting versus footwork, with Lucknow vogue accenting acting and Jaipur vogue far-famed for its spectacular footwork.

Katha is an oral tradition learned from generation to generation. It transitioned, custom-made and integrated the tastes of the Mughal courts within the sixteenth and seventeenth century notably Akbar, was ridiculed and declined within the colonial British era,[10] then was converted as the Asian nation gained independence and sought-after to discover its ancient roots and a way of national identity through the humanities.

Etymology and language

The term Kathak is unmoving within the religious text term Katha (Sanskrit: कथा) which implies “story, speech communication, the ancient tale”. Kathak refers to at least one of the most important classical dance type primarily found in the northern Asian nation, with a historical influence the same as Bharatanatyam in the south Asian nation, Odissi in the Malay Archipelago and different major classical dances found in South Asia. It differs from the many folks’ dance forms found in north and different components of the Indian landmass.

The Kathak dancers, within the ancient Asian nation, were traveling bards and were referred to as Kathakas, or Kathakar.

The simple variation of Kathak which has impressed religion, like the Bhavai that emerged within the medieval era, is presently found in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Another variant that emerged from ancient Kathak is Thumri.


According to Madonna Snodgrass, the Kathak tradition of Asian country is traceable to four hundred BCE. The earliest living text with Kathak roots is that the Natya Shastra, attributed to sage Bharata, and its 1st complete compilation is dated to between two hundred BCE and two hundred metallic elements, but estimates vary between five hundred BCE and five hundred metallic elements.
Kathak performance by Sharmila Sharma and Rajendra Kumar Gangani at the Guimet deposit (November 2007)
The most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of regarding 6000 verses structured into thirty-six chapters. Natalia Lidova Which describes the speculation of Tāṇḍava, rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of that area unit a part of Indian classical dances as well as Kathak. Dance and performance arts states this ancient Hindu text, area unit a kind of expression of nonsecular concepts, virtues and also the essence of scriptures.

The 2d century B.C. panels found in Bharhut show the dancers in a very vertical stance with their arms’ positions already suggesting today’s Kathak movements. Most of the dancers have one arm close to the ear in a very ”pataka hasta” (Mudra). In later years, the hasta was lowered to the bust level.

Bhakti movement era

Textual studies recommend that “Kathak” as a classical dance kind possible started in Benares (Varanasi) and from there migrated northwest to Lucknow, Jaipur and alternative components of the north and northwest Asian country. The Lucknow tradition of Kathak dance attributes the fashion to a devotion movement lover named Ishwari from the Handiya village in southeast Uttar Pradesh, UN agency attributable Hindu god Krishna showing in his dream and asking him to develop “dance as a kind of worship”.Ishwari instructed his descendants, UN agency successively preserved the educational ANd developments through an oral tradition over six generations ultimately yielding the Lucknow version of the Kathak dance – a tribe that’s acknowledged in each Hindu and Muslim music-related Indian literature.

Most of the Kathak dance themes depend upon Krishna, and his lover Radha and milkmaids (gopis) – around legends and texts like the Bhagavata Purana found within the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism. The love between Radha and Krishna became symbolism for the love between Atman (soul within) and also the supreme supply (Cosmic soul everywhere), a topic that dance ballet and mimetic plays of Kathak artists expressed.

Mughal era

Shinjini Kulkarni acting Kathak.
The Mughal era courts and nobles accepted Kathak as a kind of patrician recreation, that low financial gain families were willing to supply. However, the dance became additional abstract and titillating, less as a method of communication of non-secular or spiritual concepts, and in cases, the dancers innovated by accentuation the eroticism and physiological property the Muslim audience wished whereas keeping the message like those of Krishna-Radha embedded within the dance. According to Drid Williams:

It ought to be remembered that the primary Kathak dancers were, after all, Hindus UN agency danced for Moghul overlords. an excessive amount of outward expression of non-secular belief was no doubt undesirable. it’s so cheap to assume that the wide use of ‘abstract’ saltation, complex bell work (tatkar), dazzling turns and also the fugitive, transient, glimpses of Radha and Krishna in Kathak arose each to inform the dancers regarding their reasons for saltation and (gently, unobtrusively) to deceive their stately Moghul audiences. maybe tatkar and tukras shaped the majority of those 1st dancers’ performances. bit by bit additional and additional pictures, then stories of Krishna and Radha crept in.

Drid Williams, social science and also the Dance

. once the colonial European officers began incoming in Asian country, the Kathak court recreation they witnessed was a synthesis of the traditional Indian tradition and Central Asian-Persian dance kind, and also the Kathak dance performers were known as the “nautch girls” (or natch, a spinoff of the tougher to pronounce Sanskritic language Natya).

British dominion era

With the unfolding of colonial British rule the nineteenth-century Asian country, Kathak in conjunction with all alternative classical dance forms was discouraged and it severely declined. This was partly the results of the Victorian morality of sexual repressiveness in conjunction with Anglican missionaries UN agency criticized Hinduism. Reverend James Long, as an example, projected that Kathak dancers ought to forget ancient Indian tales and Hindu legends and substitute them with European legends and Christian tales. Missionaries recorded their frustration in Church Missionary Review after they saw Hindu audiences applaud and shout “Ram, Ram” throughout Kathak performances.

Missionaries and colonial officers , Indian men WHO had been educated in colonial Britain and had custom-made to Victorian primness stated criticism, states Margaret Walker, presumably as a result of they’d lost their cultural association, now not understood the underlying religious themes behind the dance, and assumed this was one in all the “social ills, immoral and backward elements” in their heritage that they need to end. However, the Hindu families continuing their non-public tutoring associated unbroken the Kathak art alive as an oral tradition. Kathak lecturers conjointly shifted to coaching boys to preserve the tradition, as most of the 20th-century ridicule had been directed at Kathak “nautch girls”.

Kathak was dropped at the eye of audiences outside the Asian nation in the early twentieth century through Kalkaprasad Maharaj.

Postcolonial era

The movement to finish the colonial era associated for a freelance Asian nation-states Walker conjointly witnessed a revival of Kathak and a lot of broadly speaking, a cultural ferment and energy to reclaim culture and discover history. The Kathak revival movements co-developed in Muslim and Hindu gharanas, notably by the Kathak-Misra community. of those the Jaipur and Lucknow sub-traditions of Kathak have attracted a lot of scholarship.
State of ‘sam’ performed by Manisha Gulyani
BBC Arts article, published that Kathak is exclusive in being practiced by the Muslim community of the Asian nation, and so encompasses a “historical link to Islam that just about formally forbids dance and music”. Farah Yasmeen Shaikh, a Muslim and a devotee of Pandit Chitresh Das within the Lucknow faculty, consider Kathak as a “confluence of Hindu and Muslim cultures”, and has conferred her performance in Pakistan. In distinction, states BBC, “Nahid Siddiqui, settled and nurtured within the UK, encompasses an arduous time practicing and presenting her [Kathak] art in her birth-country of Pakistan”.

While most students think about Kathak as associate ancient art, some like Margaret Walker recommend the trendy Kathak may be a 20th-century development, a lot of a type of cultural revival, if one depends on the music-related Indian documents.


A modern Kathak, altogether 3 major sub-traditions known as Lucknow, Benares and Jaipur designs (gharana), states Bruno Nettl, carries with it 3 main sections – the invocation, one pure (abstract) dance recital and one communicatory dance.

The invocation (Vandana) consists of the dancer coming back to the stage and giving reference to his or her guru and also the musicians on the stage. If the team is from the Hindu tradition, the dancer(s) mix facial expressions and hand gestures (mudra) to invoke Hindu gods and goddesses; whereas a Muslim performance replaces the pious expressions with a sausage (salutation).

The pure dance is named a nritta, whereas the communicatory dance is named a nritya. A Kathak performance will be solo, pair or team. in a very technical performance, the speed and energy the dancers exchange with the audience will increase in multiples, that’s the tempo doubles or quadruples. throughout the performance, one or a lot of the Kathak artists might return to the mike, act with the audience, justify one thing, tell associate report in a very specific language, or rhythmically recite a song.

The costumes of the dancer and also the facial cosmetics of a Hindu or Muslim Kathak dance organization varies. The stage usually is blank with no distracting background, states Williams, with musicians sitting on rugs downstage right (audience’s left), and if it’s a Hindu performance there’s a picture of dance Shiva (Nataraja) or a Ganesa on the stage’s left with flowers and perfumed incense burning.

Pure dance (Nritta)

The nritta performance starts off with a thàth sequence, that may be a slower sleek movement of wrists, neck, and eyebrows. Thereafter, the dancer step by step will increase speed and energy, whereas finishing a sequence of bol (mnemonic syllables in Indian tradition). every bol has short sections, like technical exercises in western dance traditions, whereby the dancer engages the audience with tora, tukra, parhant, paran et al. stressing footwork, gestures, and turns. every section once completed encompasses a punctuation, sometimes a pointy flip of the top. every articulatio plana are adorned with tiny bells (ghungroo), which can have only 1 bell or lots of. The dancer’s fast movements and footwork in a very nritta are absolutely regular to the musical beats (tala) and tempos, and also the footwork sequences ar was known as tatkars.

Most of the Nritta performance is an abstract, quick and chantlike facet of Kathak.[15] in a very Kathak nritta, like all classical Indian dance forms, the viewer is conferred with pure movement, whereby the stress is that the beauty in motion, form, speed, vary and pattern. It aims to interact the senses (prakriti) of the audience.

Expressive dance (Nritya)

The communicatory (nritya) stage of the Kathak dance, wearing Hindu costumes.
Nritya is slower and communicatory facet of Kathak that tries to speak feelings, plot notably with religious themes in Hindu dance traditions. in a very nritya, the dance expands to incorporate words, musical notes and gestures to articulate a legend or message, it’s over sensory enjoyment, it aims to interact the emotions and mind of the viewer.

The quality of Kathak is additionally found in alternative classical dances of the Asian nation. Its roots are found within the Natyashastra text that defines drama in verse half-dozen.10 as that that esthetically arouses joy within the spectator, through the medium of actor’s art of communication, that helps connect and transport the individual into a brilliant sensual inner state of being. The Natya connects through abhinaya (literally, “carrying to the spectators”), that’s applying body-speech-mind and scene, whereby asserts Natyashastra, the actors communicate to the audience, through song and music. Drama in this ancient Indo-Aryan text so is associate art to interact each facet of life, so as to glorify and gift a state of joyful consciousness. in keeping with Massey, another necessary ancient text that has influenced Kathak is that the Abhinaya Darpanam of Nandikeshvara (~2nd century CE).

In Kathak, abhinaya is that the sort of Flemish-speaking gestures and pantomime set to music that generally outlines a legend or the plot of a regular story. The gestures and facial expressions convey the ras (sentiment, emotional taste) and bhava (mood) of the underlying story. within the Hindu texts on dance, the guru and also the artists with success categorical the religious concepts by listening to four aspects of a performance: Angik (gestures and body language), Vachik (song, recitation, music and rhythm), Aharya (costume, makeup, jewelry), and Satvik (artist’s mental disposition and emotional reference to the story and audience, whereby the artist’s inner and outer state resonates).A Kathak nritya performance, but grants flexibility to the artists and invitations improvisation, and it’s going to not be accompanied by a song or recital regarding the legend. The stories in Kathak performance tend to be regarding the Hindu god avatar (or in some cases Shiva or Devi), and also the stories return from sources like the Bhagavata Purana, or the Indian Epics. this type of quality is additionally found in thumri and Persian ghazals.


The costumes vary among Kathak performers, and are either Hindu or Muslim.

The Hindu costume for feminine dancers has 2 variations. One is predicated on a dress, however, is worn in a very vogue completely different from the customary vogue that goes over the left shoulder. A Kathak creative person typically wraps the dress around the waist and it hangs down from the left. A shirt known as choli covers the higher body. The creative person might wear a shawl (called orhni in some places). Hair, face, ear, neck, hand, radiocarpal joint and articulatio plana jewelry, usually of gold, might adorn the creative person. A tika or bindi within the middle of the forehead is common. But in other second variation, Kathak dancer uses an extended, full (just higher than the ankle), light-weight skirt sometimes with an adorned border that helps highlight the dance moves. The skirt is contrasted with a unique color choli, and a clear scarf usually drapes over it and also the dancer’s head. jewelry usually gifts within the second variation.

The Muslim costume for feminine dancers conjointly uses a skirt, however, includes shut fitting churidar pajamas and generally an extended coat covering hands and also the higher body. the top encompasses a cowl scarf and also the jewelry is lightweight.

The Hindu costume for male Kathak performers is usually a silk breechclout draped around the waist, then sometimes lined with a silk scarf tied on prime. The higher body is also blank, show the Hindu thread, or be lined with a loose jacket. Kathak male artists conjointly wear jewelry, however typically of stones and far less complicated than the feminine artists.
Musical instruments like tabla et al. (left) accompany a Kathak performance.


The ensemble of musical instruments varies with any Kathak performing artist, starting from 2 to 12 classical Indian instruments or a lot of inversions with artificial innovations. the foremost common instruments that escort Kathak ar tabla (a combine of hand drums) that syncs with the dancer’s feet rhythms, sarangi or free-reed instrument with Mandira (hand cymbals) that meters the tal (cycle), and alternative instruments to feature impact, depth and structure to the communicatory stage of a Kathak performance.


Kathak may be a diffuse tradition, of that 3 gharanas (schools) are a lot of standards and studied – Jaipur, Benares, and Lucknow. The schools place completely different relative stress between aspects of a Kathak performance like the acting versus footwork. The Lucknow vogue, for instance, emphasizes acting whereas Jaipur vogue emphasizes the dance and footwork. historically, the Jaipur Gharana has had a powerful religious flavor, covering a various vary of concepts in Vaishnavism and Shaivism.
Performing Kathak, Lucknow Gharana vogue
The Jaipur Gharana traces its origins to Bhanuji, a noted Shiva Tandava dancer WHO upon visiting Vrindavan was impressed and tutored Natvari Nritya. Bhanuji’s grandsons Laluji and Kanhuji were equally impressed by the avatar. They came back to Jaipur, and along they began the Jaipur Gharana of Kathak. The Jaipur vogue developed below the support of Hindoo rulers, and that they favored the Kathak dance with Hindu spiritual themes. In the era, this faculty has continued their stress on dance and footwork with Jai Lal, Janki Prasad, Kundan Lal, Mohan Lal and Nawal Kishore. This faculty is best legendary for its systematic innovations in chantlike dance, and also the use of dance movement to precise a story.

The Lucknow Gharana of Kathak dance attributes its origins to a rural avatar fan named Ishwari from the village in the southeast province, WHO aimed to develop Kathak dance as a type of caressive devotion to the avatar. This faculty thrived once the Mughal Empire folded, once Kathak artists captive from city to Lucknow below the support of Avadh nawabs WHO favored court dance culture. within the era, the Lucknow Gharana vogue influences the school in Indian capital with Shambu Maharaj, Birju Maharaj, and Lacchu Maharaj. In Kathak choreography, there were themes on the far side Krishna-Radha, like those supported by the drama works of Kalidasa’s Shiva-Parvati and Bhavabhuti’s Malati-Madhav. This faculty has conjointly tried a Hindu-Muslim Kathak fusion vogue, lightness the court dancers theme.

The Benares Gharana is that the third major vogue historically believed to be the oldest. Its history is unclear. in keeping with Kothari, the varsity started with Janakiprasad from a village close to Bikaner WHO relocated to Varanasi, however, one whose ancestors were noted dancers and musicians. Janakiprasad was a dancer and an Indo-Aryan scholar, and attributable with inventing the bols of Kathak, that ar method syllables inside the language of this classical dance of Asian nation.

According to Nicole Lehmann, fashionable Kathak dancers show, to varying degrees, a fusion of the designs from all 3 gharanas.

Relationship with alternative art forms
The north Indian Kathak dance differs from the south Indian Bharatanatyam in many ways in which, although each has roots within the Hindu text Natya Shastra. Kathak expressions – notably in Hindu pious designs – are a lot of introspective and withdrawn, whereas Bharatanatyam is a lot of extroverted and expansive. Kathak is often performed in a very standing kind with legs and body usually straight, whereas Bharatanatyam extensively utilizes bent knee kind (ara mandi, [*fr1] sitting position that’s somewhat like Demi Plié ballet move).

Kathak is in addition fully totally different from Kathakali, although every ar Indian classical dance traditions of “story play” whereby the stories square measure traditionally derived from the Hindu epics and additionally the Puranas. Kathakali emerged within the southwestern region of Asian nation (modern Kerala) and is distinctive in its elaborate statute colorful makeup, masks and costumes. Kathakali historically has been troupes of preponderantly male actor-dancers, WHO dress up as a hero, heroines, gods, goddesses, demons, demonesses, priests, animals and everyday life characters. Both dance forms use elaborate footwork, choreography and hand gestures, however, Kathakali integrates south Indian martial arts movements like leaps and jumps. each dance forms trace their roots to classical Indo-Aryan texts, however, Kathakali has comparatively newer origins, a lot of closely follows the Hastha Lakshanadeepika text and commenced flourishing within the sixteenth century. whereas every encompasses a completely different musical and dance language, each deploys a bunch of comparable ancient Indian musical instruments.

According to Miriam Phillips, the Indian Kathak and also the Spanish Flamenco dance share several visual, chant-like and proprioception similarities.

(Shahinul Islam Uzzal)


Ballet Dance | Ballet Dance Wiki | Ballet Dance History

          Ballet Dance

Ballet has originated in the Renaissance courts Italy in the 15th century but developed in France and Russia. It is a highly technical form of dance and it has own vocabulary which is based on French terminology.

Ballet, which is worldwide known today, around the year 1500 in Italy. The terms “ballet” and “ball” as in masked ball, come from the Italian ballare, to dance. When Catherine de Medici of Italy married the French King Henry II, she introduced early dance styles into court life in France.

Earlier, the dancers had to wear many things like they had to wear masks, their costume was long layer upon layers, large headdresses, pantaloons, and ornaments. Their dresses looked nice but were difficult to move in. Dance steps were composed of small hops, slides, curtsies, promenades, and gentle turns. Dancing shoes and formal dress shoes weren’t like modern ballet shoe we would acknowledge these days.

When Louis XIV reigned, the king himself performed many of the popular dances of the time. At that time professional dancers were hired to perform at court functions when King Louis and fellow noblemen stopped dancing.

Earlier, the dancers had to wear several things like that they had to wear masks, their costume was long layer upon layers, massive headdresses, pantaloons, and ornaments. Their dresses looked nice however was troublesome to maneuver in. Dance steps were composed of tiny hops, slides, curtsies, promenades, and delicate turns. diversion shoes had tiny heels and resembled formal dress shoes instead of any modern ballet shoe we would acknowledge nowadays.

once Sun King reigned, the king himself performed several of the popular dances of the time. At that point, skilled dancers were employed to perform at court functions once King prizefighter and fellow noblemen stopped diversion.

In the early twentieth century, the Russian theatre producer cloth impresario brought along a number of that country’s most proficient dancers, choreographers, composers, singers, and designers to make a bunch referred to as the Ballet Russes. The Ballet Russes toured Europe and America, presenting a good type of ballets. Here in America, ballet grew in quality throughout the 1930’s once many of Diaghilev’s dancers left his company to figure with and settle within the U.S. Of these, the dancer is one in every of the simplest best-known artists WHO firmly established ballet in America by beginning the big apple town Ballet. Another key figure was Adolph Bolm, the primary director of San Francisco Ballet college.

International charm

Ballet has unfolded throughout the planet, notably within the stagings of the Royal Danish Ballet, the Sadler’s Royal Ballet of London, yank Ballet Theatre, the Australian Ballet, and additional recently the China Central Ballet, metropolis Ballet, and also the company of the New National Theater of Japanese capital, also because the National Ballet Academy and Trust started in Bharat. The Korean National Ballet (founded in 1962), and additional recently Universal Ballet of the national capital, have contributed to the popularization of ballet in Korean Peninsula. The Universal Ballet invited Oleg Vinogradov, the inventive director of the Kirov Ballet for twenty-two years, to stage classics from the Kirov repertory beginning in 1992, and as inventive director in 1998, so introducing the Russian ballet vogue in Korean Peninsula.

The vigor and skill of recent ballet have won international recognition. Re-stagings of beloved ballets, also as innovative choreography, testify to the pliability and vitality of the art. Dancers and choreographers perpetually look for to explore new technical and dramatic frontiers, and international tours of dance firms and elite faculties of dance ensure the continued world charm of latest ballet.

(Shahinul Islam Uzzal)


Samba Dance | Samba Dance History | Samba Dance Wiki

Samba Dance History

Samba is Afro-Brazilian origin an energetic, measured dance. it’s 2/4 time danced to Samba music whose origins embrace the Maxixe.

Samba is an authentic dance to black/African individuals in Brazil World Health Organization brought abundant of their music and dance culture into Latin America with them upon arrival into several resident countries. Samba music is incredibly just like and has been influenced by several Angolan music genres. it’s conjointly been influenced by several different resident music genres and dances. The Samba music rhythm has been danced in Brazil since its origination in the late sixteenth century. there’s really a collection of dances, instead of one dance, that outline the Samba performing arts scene in Brazil; but, nobody dance is often claimed with certainty because of the “original” Samba vogue.

Another major stream of the Samba dance beside the Brazilian Samba performing arts designs is room Samba, that differs considerably.

Samba within the rain at Samba Carnaval in the European nation.
Samba no pé (literally, “samba within the foot”) could be a solo dance that’s normally danced impromptu once samba music vies. the fundamental movement involves a straight body and a bending of 1 knee at a time. The feet move terribly slightly – solely many inches at a time. The rhythm is 2/4, with three steps per life. It is often thought of as a step-ball-change. It is often delineated vocation it and-a-one, and-a-two, then back to 1. the fundamental movement is that the same to either aspect, wherever one foot moves to the surface lifting up simply before the primary beat (i.e. the proper leg moves slightly to the right) and leg is unbroken as straight as a pole. the opposite foot moves slightly towards the front, and nearer to the primary foot. The second leg bends gently at the knee in order that the left aspect of the hip lowers and therefore the right aspect seems to maneuver higher. the burden is shifted to the present within foot concisely for successive “and a”, then shifted back to the surface foot on the “two”, and therefore the same series of actions is continuing towards the opposite aspect.

The dance merely follows the beat of the music and may go from average pace to in no time. Men dance with the entire foot on the bottom whereas ladies, typically sporting heels, dance simply on the balls of the foot. Professionals might modification the steps slightly, taking four steps per life rather than three, and sometimes add varied arm movements reckoning on the mood of the music.

Their area unit|are} regional varieties of the dance in Brazil wherever the essential steps are similar, however, due to a modification within the accent of the music individuals can dance similar movements to the marginally modified accents. for example, in Bahia the women tend to bop tilting their legs towards the surface rather than keeping their knees near one another as in First State Janeiro|Rio|city|metropolis|urban center} de Janeiro.

This is the sort of Samba one sees within the Brazilian Carnival parades and in different Samba carnivals over the planet. this is often conjointly one in all the foremost common sort of samba performing arts in Brazil.

Samba Diamond State Gafieira

Samba Diamond State Gafieira could be a partner dance significantly totally different from the room Samba. It appeared within the Nineteen Forties and it gets its name from the gafieira, standard urban nightclubs of First State Janeiro|Rio|city|metropolis|urban center} de Janeiro at that point.

The dance derived from the Maxixe and followed the arrival of the Choro (another samba musical style). It left most of the Maxixe’s Polka parts behind but maintained the entwined leg movements of Argentina Tango, although adopting lots of relaxed posture than the latter. several see this manner of Samba as a mixture of Waltz and Tango. many Brazilian dance studios use elements and techniques from these two dances to indicate Samba American state Gafieira steps and dance routines.

Samba Pagode

Samba Pagode is another Samba partner dance that resembles the Samba Diamond State Gafieira, however, has less gymnastic movements and have a tendency to be a lot of intimate. It became a dance vogue once the looks of the Pagoda and it started within the town of São Paulo.

Samba Axé

Samba Axé could be a solo dance that started in 1992 throughout the Brazilian Carnival season in Bahia once the Axé rhythm replaced the Lambada. For years it became the key sort of dance for the Northeast of Brazil throughout the vacation months. The dance is totally choreographed and therefore the movements tend to mimic the lyrics. it is a terribly energetic reasonably dance that mixes components of Samba no pé and aerobic exercise and sense of the lyrics, that square measure created for diversion, the dance typically has some form of ludic component.

Several Axé music teams like “É o Tchan” have as a part of their selling strategy to continuously unharness a choreography in conjunction with all of their songs; thus, Samba Axé is AN changing reasonably dance with no commitment to maintaining any formal set of steps or routines (there’s really no such a factor as a basic step in Samba Axé.)

Samba popular music

Also originated from Bahia, it is a mixture of popular music beats with Samba drums. extremely popular in songs by Daniela Mercury, World Health Organization catapulted the rhythm to the planet with songs like “Sol DA Liberdade” “O popular music E O Mar” and “Perola Negra”. Samba genre is that the second most popular samba vogue in Bahia, with followers all over Brazil.


Samba rock may well be AN elfin sort of the samba, and it originates in São Paulo. it is a Latin cabaret dance.

Samba Diamond State roda

Samba Diamond State roda (“Samba of roda”) could be an ancient Afro-Brazilian dance performed originally as informal fun once a Candomblé ceremony, victimization a similar percussion instrument used throughout the ceremony. the everyday drum is that the atabaque; drummers improvise variations and embellishments on common patterns, accompanied usually by singing and hand clapping in addition to performing arts.

The Samba Diamond State Roda could be an affair event incorporating music, choreography, and poetry.

The term “Samba” encompassed many various rhythms, tunes, percussion and dances of varying periods and areas of the Brazilian territory. It appeared within the state of Bahia, a lot of specifically within the region of Recôncavo in Brazil, throughout the seventeenth century.

Because all percussion and dance were generalized by Portuguese colonizers as “samba”, it’s troublesome to attribute it to 1 distinct heritage. However, the foremost universally recognized cultural origin of Samba is Lundu, a rhythm that was dropped at Brazil by the Bantu slaves from the continent. Lundu reveals, in a way, the integration of black (slaves) and white (Portuguese) and autochthonic cultures. once the African slaves wherever foreign, it absolutely was named the “semba” and with the introduction of the Arabic Pandeiro (tambourine), brought into the Roda by the Portuguese, the “Samba” was wrought into the shape of dance it’s currently.

In the autochthonic language, “samba” means that roda Diamond State dança, or a circle to bop since the autochthonic peoples danced in celebration on several occasions, like the celebration of standard Catholic festivals, individual or Afro-Brazilian non-secular ceremonies, however, was conjointly practiced willy-nilly.

All participants, together with beginners, square measure invited to hitch the dance and observe in addition as imitate. Usually, solely the ladies dance once one another and that they square measure encircled by others performing arts in a very circle and hand clapping their hands. The choreography is usually spontaneous and relies on movements of the feet, legs, and hips. one in all the foremost typical moves is that the umbigada that is obvious Bantu influence, wherever the dancer invitations her successor into the circle’s center.

The issue that often attracts the eye of most of the people to the rhythm is that the unusually-accented (syncopated) beat. The absent beat is that the strongest characteristic of Samba prompting the auditor to bop to fill the gap with her/his body movements. This rhythmic rhythm is additionally a sign of Black resistance against cultural assimilation. The Samba of Roda particularly was thought of as AN expression of freedom and identity of the disadvantaged and have become a way of liberation.

The Samba Diamond State Roda has considerably waned throughout the 20th century thanks to economic decline and inflated financial condition within the region. the consequences of mass media and competition from standard trendy music have conjointly debased this tradition among the younger generation. Finally, the weakening of the Samba Diamond State Roda was heightened through the aging of practitioners and dying of these World Health Organization created the musical instruments.

(Shahinul Islam Uzzal)